Intro to Psychology – Part 2


In part 1 we have seen about the Psychology, brain and behaviors. But there a lot of topics waiting for part 2, which will be more interesting ones like learning, memory, intelligence. So lets get started with Learning.

1) Learning

Learning is enduring change in behavior that occurs with experience. There are three types of learning Classic, operant and social learning.

a) Classical Conditioning:

Reflex – unlearned, automatic response (cough, eye blink)

Acquisition – Pavlov and dog (bell – meat – dog saliva)

Conditioned taste, smell – Some taste, smell make us ill.

Schedules of reinforcement – ratio, interval

b) ABC of Operant conditioning:

Sealion – training to kiss and dolphin show

Reinforcement and punishment are the basic keys to make learn.

i) Reinforcement – to increase a behavior. It can to +ve or -ve (by adding/removing something in environment)

ii) Punishment – to decrease a behavior

c) Social Learning:

If somebody do something and get a reward, we also like to do the same, so that we also will get a reward.

Bobo doll study, What we see on the social and gets a reinforcement, will do the same. (Watching television)

Brain and learning:

So how much you learn and practice, that much you brain neurons involved fired, wired and strengthened. When you stop learning, neurons become weaker and see a memory lose.



Long term learning makes our neuron stronger and growth, becomes change in brain.


2) Memory:

H.M – Henry Molaison, one of the famous patient in brain study for nearly 60 years. Few years ago he died and his brain was contributed to UCSD university for further study, which they sliced into 2400 slices.

H.M was affected by siezures due to some problem in Hippocampus. Because of his struggle in siezure nearly 10 per day, doctors decided to remove his hippocampi. Which solved his problem and came to know that his is not able to remember anything.

Hippocampus –  plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory

There are many types of memory which our brain deals on our life.

a) Sensory memory –  During every moment of an organism’s life, sensory information is being taken in by sensory receptors and processed by the nervous system.The information people received which is stored in sensory memory is just long enough to be transferred to short-term memory.

b) Short-term/working memory – listening, reading (practice to make long-term)

c) Working memory – day to day activities

d) Chunking – acronyms or 5-7-9 digits make easier to remember

e) Serial position effect – remember begin and end items of list

f) Long-term memory:

While short-term and working memory persist for 10 – 30 seconds, Long-term memory remain for indefinitely.

There are different sub levels involved to store the long-term memory

    • Episodic memory – biographic things
    • Semantic memory – general knowledge or facts
    • Explicit or declarative memory – abt past (both episodic & semantic)
    • Implicit or procedural memory – knowledge on previous experience
      • Riding cycle, swimming

There are four step for long-term memory:

    • Encoding – Attention, take it in, process info. More deeper the better we can recall. Mnemonic device – rhyme or acronym
    • Consolidation – Process of establish, stabilize our memory – sleep
    • Storage – Hierarchy, Schema, Associative network
    • Retrieval – recall the information.

g) False memory – memory will change the situation.

Lets take a Car accident, if police asks different words, ways of same questions to each witness, we use to get different answer. Becoz mind changes.

h) Forgetting and memory loss:

Interference – due to new information we learn, use to forget previous memory

i) 3 distinct long-term memory systems.

    • Cerebellum and Striation – Learn to do things such as implicit procedures
    • Amygdala – Experiencing emotional events.
    • Hippocampus – We Concioussly and explicitly remember personal event or trying to recall answer to an essay.

j) Emotion in memory – play key role of storing info in long-term memory.

2) Language and Thoughts

a) Stages: Lang Comprehension (understanding) and then Lang development (production)

b) Initial stage of child development – not learn (lang), window of learning closes and become very difficult to learn.

c) Hart and Risley theory (functional approach): Professional, middle-class, welfare family – decrease in learning lang, speaking, praising or positive words

d) Chomskys (Structural approach): comes of naturally

e) Thoughts:

    • Mental representation – structure in mind, like idea, image
    • Mental rotation – Concept, category, prototype
    • Reasoning – Deductive reasoning(straight forward), Inductive reasoning(stmt diff from people)
    • Critical thinking
    • Metacognitive thinking – first think and reflect on one’s own thinking
    • Judgment and decision making

3) Intelligence:

Intelligence is ability to think, reasoning, problem solving, learning, from experience.

Single ability: Intelligence on single ability, Where Math, Lang, spatial – related ( 1increase other also increase in scores)

Multiple Intelligence : There are 8 types of intelligence. Math, linguistic, spatial, music, bodily, intra, interpersonal, naturalist

Measuring Intelligence:

IQ test: result mostly on academic not for real life (happiness)

Stanford Binet test: IQ nature vs nuture. Gene or family plays less percentage of role in Intelligence, Where nuture or environment makes our intelligence.

Creativity: Is not on intelligence. Thinking out of the box.

Problem solving: Intelligence and Creativity helps on problem solving.

4) Motivation and Emotion:


  • Drive reduction model – body auto change respect to environment
  • Hierarchy of needs: Physiological ( basic needs like food, sleep, Safety, Love/Belonging, Esteem (Confidence, achievement), Self-actualization (creativity, problem solving)
  • Rejection
  • Achievement motivation – desire to do things well and overcome obstacles
  • Extrinsic motivation – motivate others by giving rewards (have opposite effects)
  • Intrinsic motivation – comes from within person (challenge, enjoyment, mastery)
  • Motivation to eat – Insulin (glucose to blood and stop hunger)


  • Moods – longer lasting experience
  • Emotion – short exp to mins
  • Affective traits – permanently
  • Pride
  • Emotion expressions – Charles Darwin
  • Facial expression change our mind and emotions (it may be fake too, it chg our emotions)
  • Emotion thro voice – can control facial expression, but not voice on emotions
  • Amygdala – brain that control emotions
  • Culture changes emotions
  • Make positive frozen in your face brings positive energy into you.

5) Stress and Health:


  • It couldn’t take it up to the mind easily.
  • As stimulus – event or situation that trigger stress
  • As response – physiological change
  • Cortisol release which affects the brain and cause the interfere to memory. It should stop in sometimes, otherwise the stress makes more chemical emit and cause damage to our brain.

Handling stress:

a) Problem-focused – change situation or solve problem
b) Emotion-focused – changing or regulating one’s emotional response (social support or sharing)

    • Reappraisal
    • Escape-avoidance
    • Self-control
    • Seeking social support
    • Emotional disclosure

c) Emotional disclosure – to write or talk about stressful situation
d) Meditation, exercise
e) Smoking – stimulant (raise level of nervous system)
f) Drugs – Depressant (reduce functional nervous system)

Health psychology

  • Physiological reaction model – bodily changes to illness
  • Health Behavior Approach – diet, exercise

Immune system:

  • Type of defense
  • Natural immunity
  • Acquired immunity

6) Personality:

Big Five or OCEAN:

a) Openness to experience – try new things or curiosity
b) Conscientiousness – careful and planful
c) Extraversion – social, open, no shyness, taking risk
d) Agreeableness – carrying, friendly, compassion, warm.
e) Neurotics – fear, sadness

Personality comes from nature and nurture
Environment influence more on non-family (non-shared – friends, teacher, role model) rather than family (shared)




There are some more topics contains more deeper content, which I like to skip. With this am ending  my Intro to Psychology blog.

Courtesy: To Udacity online course.


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