OUTLIERS – Part-5

9. Marita’s Bargain

“ALL MY FRIENDS NOW ARE FROM KIPP”

KIPP – Knowledge is Power Program

KIPP academy – poorest neighborhoods in New York city. Chosen by lottery.

“SSLANT” – Smile, Sit up, Listen, Ask questions, nod when being spoken to, and track with your eyes.

No exaggeration to say that ten years into its existence, KIPP has become one of the most desirable public schools in New York City and famous for its mathematics.

“Relation of Education to Insanity”, – “over-study”

“Education lays the foundation of a large portion of the causes of mental disorder”

“Not infrequently is health itself destroyed by over-stimulation the mind”

 

Summer vacation – California Achievement Test – reading scores – socioeconomic class – low, middle, high.

(After return from summer vacation) 5th grade: Low – 461, Middle – 497, High – 534.

Achievement gap: kids don’t have same inherent ability to learn as children from more privileged backgrounds. Some way our schools are failing poor children.

School-year gains – whole year test result

Low – 189, Middle – 214, High – 184

Reading score changes during Summer vacation:

Low – 0.26, Middle – 7.09, High – 52.49

When it comes to reading skills, poor kids learn nothing when school is not in session. Result of differences in the way privileged kids learn while they are not in school also.

Students in Asia don’t have long summer vacations.

KIPP schools set out to solve by decided to bring the lessons of the rice paddy to the American inner city.

KIPP school – 7.25 AM – 5 PM and then sports or homework clubs (7 PM).

Saturdays – 9 – 1

Summer – 8 – 2 ( extra 3 weeks of school in July)

Students working on single problem for 20 mins, methodically, carefully, working his way not just the answer, but also the question of whether there was more than one way to get the answer.

What that extra time does is allow for a more relaxed atmosphere. Extended amount of time gives you the chance as a teacher to explain things, and more time for the kids to sit and digest everything that’s going on – to review, to do things at a slower pace. Extra time gave them chance to make Math meaningful.

A 5th grade girl cried every Saturday, that she was horrible in math. Huge tears and tears. She just e-mailed us a couple weeks ago. She’s is in college now. She’s an accounting major.

Story of miracle school transforms losers into winners, of course too familiar, It’s the stuff of inspirational books and sentimental Hollywood movies. But KIPP is a good deal less glamorous than that.

KIPP students – wake up 5:45 and go to bed by 11PM after finishing the homework’s.

We believe children should have time to play and dream and sleep. But for poor students, there community does not give her what she needs. (Facility to learn, resources etc,.)

So what does she have to do? Give up her evenings and weekends and friends – all elements of her old world – and replace them with KIPP.

Outliers are those who have been given opportunities.

KIPP students doesn’t need a brand-new school with acres of playing fields and facilities. They doesn’t need a laptop, a smaller class, a teacher with Ph.D, or a bigger apartment. She doesn’t need a higher IQ. All those things would be nice, of course. But they miss the point. They just needed a chance.


10. A Jamaican Story

“IF A PROGENY OF YOUNG COLORED CHILDREN IS BROUGHT FORTH, THESE ARE EMANCIPATED”

Daisy Donald – schoolteacher Jamica, twins daughter Faith and Joyce. When Donald was told that he had fathered twins, he sank down on his knees and surrendered responsibility for their lives over to God.

Joyce went to private high school and university in London and fell in love with Graham. They had three sons and built a beautiful house on a hill. Graham’s last name is Gladwell, my father and Joyce is my mother.

My mother’s path of success isn’t true and not a lie.

In 1935 when my mother were four. William M. MacMillan visited Jamica and deeply concern about social problems. No public high schools or universities. They need to go extra classes with head teacher and somehow find their way to private school and university to US or England. But scholarships were few and far between and cost of private schooling was prohibitive for all but a privileged few.

MacMillan wrote and published his book about it and Jamica problems. Then British government took it seriously and proposed scholarship to go to private schools from 1941.

My mother and twin sat for exam the following year. My aunt awarded scholarship and my mother was not.

My grandmother was steadfast, sent both to school(without money to pay for next term) and prayed and at end of first term one of other girls won two scholarships and second one gave to my mother.

For university, “Centenary” – hundered years of slavery in Jamaica, one scholarship each year of whole island to top boy or girl alternative year. That year was girls and my aunt got it.My mother was not. My grandmother borrowed money from Chinese shop which is huge amount and sent them both to London.

History about Jamaica, British slavery. buying slaves and relationship with them – mulatto – getting privileged than black. Same time in America you should not have relation ship with slave.

About color issues,  about his great great great grandfather bought his great.. grandmother and son mulatto and getting privileged in future.

About his mother insulted by mother-in-law about the dark color. ASking God about dominating whites, And she realize thro’ God spirit that Have you not done the same thing? Have you not been glad that you are not colored than you are? Grateful that you are not black?. She thinks She was no better than her mother-in-law. Both guilty of the sin of self-regard, pride.

 

No Outlier say truthfulness “I did this, all by myself”. They don’t. They are products of history and community, of opportunity and legacy.

Advertisements

OUTLIERS – Part-4

PART TWO

LEGACY

6. Harlan, Kentucky

“DIE LIKE A MAN, LIKE YOUR BROTHER DID!”

Harlan county – hearded sheep, small farms, whiskey in backyard. Samuel Howard – courthouse and the jail. William Turner – a tavern and two general stores.

Once neighbor’s cow wandered onto their land, Turner’s grandson show the cow dead. They were so harsh people and not pleasant people, who kills for small things like this. One time both the grandsons got into gunshot for cheating in poker. And both the family get into serious fight and gun shots and killing. Things quickly went from bad to worse.

These people are not pleasant because its from there root. Statistics show that the Southerner who can avoid arguments and adultery is as safe as any other American. In the backcountry, violence wasn’t for economic gain. It was personal. You fought over your honor. “Culture of honor”

Insult experiment and trigger point.

Culture legacies are powerful forces and have deep roots and long lives. They persist, generation after generation virtually intact and inherits.


7. The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes

“CAPTAIN, THE WEATHER RADAR HAS HELPED US A LOT.”

Korean Air flight crashes.

Plane crashes are much more likely to be the result of an accumulation of minor difficulties and seemingly trivial malfunctions. It is the combination of all those errors that leads to disaster.

Kinds of errors that cause plane crashes are invariably errors of teamwork and communication. Tricky situation needs to be resolved through a complex series of steps and some fail to coordinate and miss one of them.

Fuel exhaustion crash – co-pilot to ATC transcript communication.

Communicate – not just sense of issuing commands, but also in the sense of encouraging and cajoling and calming and negotiating and sharing information in the clearest and most transparent manner possible.

Newyork ATC are famous for being rude, aggressive, and bullying.

Power Distance index  – authority, respect, fear to designation.

Americans fall back on their American-ness, and that American-ness means that the ARC is thought of as an equal. But koreans are low PDI.

Later Greenberg’s run korean flight operations and first improve the proficiency of aviation English and second was to bring western firm – step out of roles in cockpit(out from cultural legacy)


8. Rice Paddies and Math Tests

“NO ONE WHO CAN RISE BEFORE DAWN THREE HUNDERED SIXTY DAYS A YEAR FAILS TO MAKE HIS FAMILY RICH.”

Southern China – Pearl River Delta – land covered thick smoggy haze, generations before were rice paddies.

Rice cultivated in China for 1000 years and technique spread various East Asia.

Rice paddies are “built” not opened up like wheat fields.

Numbers – short term memory – 7 numbers.

The Number Sense – book. Chinese number words are remarkably brief and most be uttered one-quarter of second.

The memory gap between English and Chinese is due to length. Number-naming systems in Western and Asian languages are constructed.

Numbers like(includes tamil) – 11,12, and three-fifths. It has logical counting system.

Asian children learn to count much faster than American children.

No number translation is necessary for Asian children.

Western University research says that Asian children do well Math there.

 

Western agriculture – “mechanically” oriented, sophisticated equipment replace human labour, increase his acreage.

Asian agriculture – didn’t have money to buy equipment, wasn’t any extra land. Improved their yields by becoming smarter. – Skill oriented

Asian hard working ( more hours), even do work in other job even in non- season periods.

Meaningful work – clear relationship between effort and reward.

“No one who can rise before dawn three hundred sixty days a year fails to make his family rich” – Every story so far involves someone or some group working harder than their peers.

Alan Schoenfeld – Math professor- video tape – Renee – computer slope math problem.

Glorious misconception ( Patience and curiosity) – goes back same issue, keep going and going, simply won’t give up.

School students won’t try for not more than 2 minutes, they immediately ask how to solve it.

Experiment to school students to solve a problem, and don’t come back in try for two weeks , first you won’t get anything, spend more time, keep working, you’ll find you’ll make significant progress.

You master Math if you are willing to try.

TIMSS exam – questionnaire and math exam. Rank match of who have patience in filling questionnaire done math well. Country who are will to concentrate and sit still long enough and focus on answering every single question in an endless question-naire are same countries students do best job of solving math problems. Country – Singapore, South Korea, China, Hong Kong and Japan.

OUTLIERS – Part-3

5. The Three Lessons of Joe Flom

“MARY GOT A QUATER”

Joe Flom is the last living “named” partner of the law firm. His parents were Jewish immigrants working in garments and were desperately poor. They move every year as landlords to give new tenants a month’s free rent.

Flom named “law review”- an honor for very top students in the class. After law school, during “hiring season” he didn’t get job due to his family background “Jewish Immigrant”. And joined a start-up law firm. They took cases “Whatever came in the door!”.

Being Jewish:

Didn’t get job.

Corporate lawyers represented the country’s largest and most prestigious companies, and “represented” meant they handled the taxes and the legal work behind the stocks and bonds. They did not to litigation.

The things that bright young top students did was securities work or tax. Those were the distinguished fields.

Litigation was for hams, not for serious people. Corporations just didn’t sue each other in those days.

Flom specialised in proxy fights and litigations. Then came 1970, federal regulations were relaxed. Markets become international and investors became more aggressive, and result was a boom in number and size of corporate takeovers. Amount of money involved in mergers and acquisitions every year on Wall Street increased 2,000 percent.

Then litigation get was reputated work.

“It’s not that those guys were smarter lawyers than anyone else, It’s that they had a skill that they had been working on for years that was suddenly very valuable”.

Jewish lawyers were lucky and they helped themselves. That’s the best way to put it. They took advantage of the circumstances that came their way.

Demographic Luck:

Year(which period) they live matters.

Mort Janklow – lawyer and his father too. But his father worked as struggled lawyer worked to close titles for 25 dollars. But he sold his cable business for tens of millions of dollars.

He say that his father “They didn’t have much of a chance. That was a very tough period. My father would have been much more successful in a different kind of world”.

The Garment Industry and Meaningful work:

Louis and Regina immigrant to America, without any money.  Louis tries to do street shop business and earned little. And search to do a new business and had idea of clothes. As his wife know stitching. And finds unique girl children dress and worked day and night and gets big profit.

the Jews “bit deep into the welcoming land and worked like madmen at what they knew”.

Today garment trade was the largest and most economically vibrant industry.

“There is no doubt that those Jewish immigrants arrived at the perfect time, with the perfect skills. To exploit that opportunity, you had to have certain virtues, and they worked hard. They sacrificed. They scrimped and saved and invested wisely. ”

3 things – autonomy, complexity and a  connection between effort and reward – are most people agree, that qualities work had to have to be satisfying. It is not how much money we make that  ultimately makes us happy between nine and five. It’s whether our work fulfils us. Meaningful work. Being a teacher  is meaningful etc..,

Their world – their culture and generation and family history – gave them the greatest of opportunities.

OUTLIERS – Part 2

2. The 10,000 – Hour Rule

“IN HAMBURG, WE HAD TO PLAY FOR EIGHT HOURS”

Bill Joy – University of Michigan – Year of Computer Center opened. He was sixteen. In his freshman year, he stumbled across the Computer Center – and he was hooked. From that point on, CC was his life. He programmed whenever he could.  He buried himself even deeper in the world of computer software. During the oral exams for his PhD, he made up a particularly complicated algorithm on the fly.

And you know who wrote much of the software that allows you to access the Internet.

Its the story of how the outliers in a particular field reached their lofty status through a combination of ability, opportunity, and utterly arbitrary advantage.

Is there such a thing as innate talent? Yes. Not every hockey player born in Jan ends up playing at the professional level. Only some do – the innately talented ones. Achievement is talent plus preparation.

The people at the very top don’t work just harder or even much harder than everyone else. They work much, much harder.

Researchers have settled on what they believe is the magic number for true expertise: Ten thousand hours.

Other interesting thing about that ten thousand hours, is an enormous time. It’s all impossible to reach that number all by yourself by the time you’re young adult. You have to have parents who encourage and support you. You can’t be poor, to hold part-time job to help make ends meet. Most people get into some kind of special program.

Is the ten thousand hour rule a general rule of success? – Opportunity

Beatles – Hamburg, Germany

Bill Gates – School, Computer club- Cclub money – ISI – walk to college

List of billionaires – born year and field matters.

Born 1955 – All software giants (Bill gates, Eric, Paul Allen, Steve Ballmer)


 

3. The Trouble with Geniuses – 1

“KNOWLEDGE OF A BOY’S IQ IS OF LITTLE HELP IF YOU ARE FACED WITH A FORMFUL OF CLEVER BOYS”

Super IQ – Genius – extraordinary work, memory power, multi talent

Termites – Terman IQ research children with high IQ irrespective of family background.

Geniuses are ultimate outliers. Is it true?

Terman made an error about termites success.

Intelligence IQ has a threshold, we think nobel prize winners in science must have highest IQ. Its not, to be Nobel Prize winner, you have to be smart enough to get into a college as good, Thats all.

“Intellect and achievement are far from perfectly correlated”

It little help if you faced with a classroom of clever boys – Surrounding matters.


4. The Trouble with Geniuses – 2

“AFTER PROTRACTED NEGOTIATIONS, IT WAS AGREED THAT ROBERT WOULD BE PUT ON PROBATION”

Practical Intelligence – Where highest IQ people won’t think practical.

“It knowing what to say to whom, knowing when to say it, and knowing how to say it for maximum effect”.

Langan don’t want to work in Harvard (he thinks college wont allow you to explore your ideas, it work like corporation, where we work for investors/owners). Robert don’t like physics and tried to kill his tutor.

Analytical intelligence and practical intelligence are “orthogonal”.

Analytical intelligence at least a part comes from your genes.

Practical or social savvy is knowledge. Its the skill have to be learned and come from somewhere, the place seem to get these kinds of attitudes and skills from our families.

Upper-class parent shuttling children from activities. They teach them to be open, talk or ask question irrespective of  any designation or stranger.

Middle-class – they command and expect to talk back or negotiate.

Lower-class – didn’t get any kind of this, Their responsibility to care their children, but to let them grow and develop on their own.

Entitlement – attitude perfectly suited to succeeding in the modern world.

Termites to groups A,B,C.

A – 90% graduates with more degrees.

B – doing “satisfactorily”

C – bottom, were postal workers, struggling book keepers and ideal at home, college dropouts.

Resulted show their community background also same.

What did Cs lack. Not IQ, they lacked something that could have been given to them if we’d only known they needed it: a community around them that prepared them properly for the world. They were squandered talent. But they didn’t need to be.

Langan lives in rural horse farm, work lonely what he likes to do. Every experience he had outside ended in frustration. He knew he needed to do a better job navigation the world, but he didn’t know how. He couldn’t even talk to his teacher, for goodness’ sake. These were others, with lesser minds, could master easily.

It wasn’t excuse. It was a fact, he had to make his way alone, and no one – not rock star, athletes, software billionaires and not even geniuses – ever makes it alone.

OUTLIERS – Part 1

PART ONE

OPPORTUNITY

  1. The Matthew Effect

“FOR UNTO EVERYONE THAT HATH SHALL BE GIVEN, AND HE SHALL HAVE ABUNDANCE. BUT FROM HIM THAT NOT SHALL BE TAKEN AWAY EVEN THAT WHICH HE HATH”

In the autobiographies published every year by the billionaire/entrepreneur/rock star/celebrity, the story line is always same: our hero is born in modest circumstances and by virtue of his own grit and talent fights his way to greatness.

In outliers, I want to convince you that these kinds of personal explanations of success don’t work. People don’t rise from nothing. We do owe something to parentage and patronage. Its not enough to ask what successful people are like, in other words. It is only by asking where they are from that we can unravel the logic behind who succeeds and who don’t.

Biologist often talk about the “ecology” of an organism: the tallest oak in the forest is the tallest not just because it grew from hardiest acorn; it is the tallest because no other trees blocked its sunlight, the soil around it was deep and rich, no rabbit chewed through its bark sapling or cut it down before it matured. We all know that successful people come from hardy seeds. But do we know enough about the sunlight that warmed them, the soil in which they put down the roots and the rabbits they were lucky enough to avoid? This is not a book about tall trees. It’s book about forest.

Hockey players will be selected based on born month, each year players born upto December will be selected. Who every of same age born just month later (Jan, Feb, Mar) need to try on next year.  Psychologists found that in all the game, most of the players are from (Jan – Mar) and percentage downs with months.

Players born on Jan-Mar under go more training, as they need to try on next year selection. They mature more and practice more and do well more in game.

Think for a moment about what the story of hockey and early birthdays says about success.

Professional hockey player starts out a little bit better than his peers. And that little difference leads to an opportunity that makes that difference a bit bigger, and that edge in turn leads to another opportunity, which makes the initially small difference bigger still – and on and on until the hockey player is a genuine outlier. But he didn’t start out an outlier. He started out just a little bit better.

OUTLIERS

OUTLIERS – The Story of SUCCESS

This isn’t blog of my own thoughts, this is just brief version of OUTLIERS book. Helps to rewind in future and also get an idea for those haven’t read the book.

Meaning:

  1. Something that is situated away from or classed differently from a main or related body.
  2. A statistical observation that is markedly different in value from the others of the sample.

The Roseto Mystery:

THESE PEOPLE WERE DYING OF OLD AGE. THAT’S IT.

Roseto Valfortore lies one hundred miles southeast of Rome in the Apennine foothills of the Italian. For centuries, the paesani of Roseto worked in marble quarries in surrounding hills, or cultivated the fields in valley below, walking four and five miles down the mountain in the morning and then making the long journey back up the hill at night. Life was hard, barely literate and desperately poor and without much hope in economic betterment until word reached Roseto at the end of 19th century of the land opportunity across the ocean.

After getting jobs in slate quarry, began buying land in down hill and built church. Priest encouraged townsfolk to clear the land and plant vegetables and fruits in backyards. He gave out seeds and bulbs. The town came to life.

Neighboring Bangor was largely welsh and English and next town was German, which meant – given fractious relationships between English and Germans and Italians in those years – that Roseto stayed strictly for Rosetans.

Wolf physician, was invited to give a talk and after that local doctor said. ‘You know, I’ve been practicing for seventeen years. I get patients from all over, and I rarely find anyone from Roseto under the age of sixty-five with heart disease’.

Wolf got busy, decided to do a preliminary study, in 1961. Mayor said all my sisters are going to help you.

“There was no suicide, no alcoholism, no drug addiction, and very little crime. They didn’t have anyone on welfare. These people were dying of old age. That’s it”.

Wolf began to realize was that secret of Roseto wasn’t diet or exercise or genes or location. It had to be Roseto itself. Wolf walked around the town, they figured out why.

“They looked at how the Rosetans visited one another, stopping to chat in Italian on the street, say or cooking for one another in their backyards. They learned about the extended family clans that underlay the town’s social structure. They saw how many homes had three generations living under one roof, and how much respect grandparents commanded. They went to church and saw how unifying and calming effect.”

Living a long life, we thought it was our gene, we chose to eat, to exercise, medical system. No one was used to thinking about health in terms of community.